AN EXEGETICAL PAPER BASED ON THE HEBREW TEXT OF RUTH 4:13-22

The Book of Ruth - AN EXEGETICAL PAPER BASED ON THE HEBREW TEXT OF RUTH 4_13-22

John Carter – July 22, 2016
SEBTS Biblical Hebrew 6500 A – Biblical Hebrew Syntax and Exegesis
AN EXEGETICAL PAPER BASED ON THE HEBREW TEXT OF RUTH 4:13-22
Ruth 4:13-22 MTT

Contents

Text and Author’s Translation of Ruth 4:13-22. 3

Historical Context, Literary Context and Form.. 5

Structure and Grammatical Data. 6

Lexical Data. 7

Biblical Context and Theology. 9

Secondary Literature. 11

Application and Final Thoughts. 12

Appendix I – Author’s Wooden Translation. 14

Text and Author’s Translation of Ruth 4:13-22

The quality of the communication is both limited and bolstered by factors related to the communicator and the receiver. Language, context, body language, literature, and modern social media platforms are just a few factors that inhibit or improve the effectiveness of a communicator trying to express an idea. But underlying all of these factors is a driving question, “what is the communicator trying to communicate?” This driving question is just as important for a high ranking diplomat speaking with another diplomate as it is for a mechanic speaking with a frustrated car owner. But arguably more important than these common communication scenarios, the interpreter of the Bible must also ask, ‘what is the author of any book of the Bible trying to communicate?’

In this paper it is the intended purpose to discover what the author of the book of Ruth is trying to communicate in Ruth 4:13-22. With attention focused on the end of the book of Ruth it will be argued that Ruth 4:13-22 informs the reader that Israel has good reason to believe that YHWH will not leave Israel without a redeemer to sit on the throne of David. This view is neither novel or unsupported by modern commentators.[1] [2] However, the there is still room for disagreement. It would benefit the reader to take the 5-10 minutes needed to review the book of Ruth to have a basic understanding of the plot of Ruth.

Beginning with the scope of the text and the Author’s translation, this paper will analyze the text on seven different but related areas of study: (1) Text and Authors Translation, (2) Historical Context, Literary Context and Form, (3) Structure and Grammatical Data, (4) Lexical Data, (5) Biblical Context and Theology, (6) Secondary Literature, and lastly (7) Application and Final Thoughts.[3]

The translation provided below is an attempt to be readable to the modern reader. It must be understood that even though translating is not a 1:1 process, there is still going to be a limited number of ways to translate certain words or phrases. From the outset this passage does not present any extraordinary grammatical or lexical issues that will result in a new and exotic translation of the text. For a more literal or wooden translation please see Appendix I – Author’s Wooden Translation.

4.13-17 {Closing Remarks}

Boaz took Ruth and she was his wife, and he came to her. YHWH gave Ruth a pregnancy and she progenated a son. The women said to Naomi, “You are favored by YHWH for he did not leave you without a redeemer. May his name be spoken of in all of Israel! He is your restorer of life and provider in your grey hair. For your daughter-in-law, whom you love, progenated a child. She is better to you then even seven sons!”

Naomi took the boy and she laid him on her chest and she was his nanny. The neighbor-women called the boy’s name, saying “A son is progenated to Naomi.” They called his name, “Obed.” He is the father of Jesse, the father of David.

4.18-22 {The Generations of Perez}[4]

These are the generations of Perez.

Perez progenated Hezron.
Hezron progenated Ram.
Ram progenated Amminadab.
Amminadab progenated Nahshon.
Nahshon progenated Salmon.
Salmon progenated Boaz.
Boaz progenated Obed.
Obed progenated Jesse.
Jesse progenated David.

            The text selected (Ruth 4:13-22) was assigned and so the primary reason for starting in Ruth 4:13 is to fulfill the requirement for the paper. Outside of this requirement the selection of verses 13-22 in chapter 4 looks like a logical pericope for the following reasons. First, the genealogy (v.18-22) at the end appears to be connected intimately rather than passively to the end of the book. Which would indicate that at least verse 17 and verses’ 18-22 should be taken together. Second v.13 seems to stand as a natural break in thought, although not flow, of the final chapter of Ruth. So even though it would be helpful to keep all of chapter 4 connected, [5] the final verses still seem to stand on their own as every person named in these verses are reintroduced in their relationship to the others in the story. Finally, the emphasis on the preceding verses (4:1-12) focuses on the redemption of Naomi and Ruth through the marriage of Boaz and Ruth, while this section works to turn the reader’s attention to the newly born child, Obed. With attention turned to the arrival of Obed it would seem appropriate to limit the text to the portion that directly relates to his conception, birth and future progeny.

Historical Context, Literary Context and Form

The story of Ruth take place in the days when the ‘judges judged’ (1:1), but the content of Ruth 4 it is likely that Ruth was actually written after the reign of David. This does not preclude the story from being told orally or being well-known prior to its written form. Observationally, it would appear that the story has features that lends itself to being an oral story first and a written story second.[6] It is reasonable to believe that the original oral story of Ruth would have included up to verse 17a, the naming of Obed. Under scrutiny is how or when the final portion of verse 17 and verses 18-22 were incorporated into the written form of the story. “The originality of 4:17b-22 is commonly rejected in recent scholarship… but the case is anything but decisive.”[7]

The second half of verse 17 could only have been added orally after David became king. However, this is where the reader would need to determine whether the genealogy portion was a late addition or part of the story from the beginning. If in fact the purpose of the Book of Ruth is to point toward a divine redeemer, then it would seem appropriate to include the genealogy as original to the book and not a later addition. Even if two distinct literary forms, the prose-narrative of verses 13-17 and the genealogy of verses 18-22, are used next to each other this is not a strong enough reason to separate it from the original authors work. It has been said that “the symmetrical design of the book requires the presence of the genealogy in 4:18-22, and the genealogy explicitly connects the family history given in the book of Ruth with David.”[8]

This systematic design, explicit connection and the idea that stories are attempts to communicate a message all lend themselves to the understanding that the author of the book of Ruth could have reasonably included the genealogy from the first draft. And since this story has ear marks of being an oral story first and written story second it would seem the inclusion of the genealogy was an early formation of the oral story. At least as early as the reign of King David.

Structure and Grammatical Data

Verse 13 is focused on the marriage, consummation, and full pregnancy of Ruth and Boaz. Verses 14-15 recount the blessing of Naomi as the newly redeemed woman which should reshape the readers understanding of Naomi from when first introduced in chapter 1. Where before “her personal tragedy launched the story, now her personal triumph climaxes it.”[9] Verses 16-17 focuses on the naming of this new child-redeemer. The section concludes with the genealogy of Perez connecting Obed to his progenitor Perez and his progeny King David. The first three section can be taken as a single unit 13-17 and the final section, verses 18-22, as its own single unit. Diving this text based upon its literary form does not limit the inclusion of the genealogy as original. True of any literary work, a new literary form within a work is not reason enough to limit its inclusion to the work. It appears that “the list of ancestors in Ruth (verses 18-22) was written as a ten-generation list to evoke…earlier lists”[10] found in Genesis and numbers. Also these ten-generation lists tend to indicate that there is a new epoch beginning. In this context the epoch of the Davidic monarchy[11] is coming to fruition. This ten-generation grammatical element will be dealt with in more detail below.

This structure seems to support an author intentionally making much of the connection between the birth of Obed and the reign of King David.

Lexical Data

Among others, the lexical features worth mentioning include the underlying word for redeemer (v.14), the phrase that ‘YHWH did not leave Naomi without a redeemer’ (v.14), and the ‘generations of Perez’ (v.18). Firstly, the theme of redeemer is explicitly mentioned (Ruth 4:14) as important to the Book of Ruth. This highly anticipated redeemer (go’el) finally arrives not in chapter two but here in Ruth 4:13. “Neither Naomi nor Ruth knew her place in the saga of the go’el.”[12] But even untimely events could not stop YHWH from providing a go’el. The redeemer motif is not a unique feature of Ruth, but Ruth does rely upon this motif more heavily than other Old Testament events.

Secondly, is the understanding that YHWH did ‘not leave’ Naomi without a redeemer (Ruth 4:14).

“The phrase lo’ hisbit lak (lit “did not cause to cease for you”) is striking. It represents the only use of sbt in the hiphil with Yahweh as subject in a negative sentence. In other words, Yahweh’s action was something he did not do. (i.e., let tragedy occur) Hence the phrase underscored that his intervention was preventative, heading off the tragedy of bitter old age and familial annihilation that looms so large in the book.[13]

With the arrival of the most helpless character of the story, Obed proves to be “somebody!”[14] Not because of what he has done, but because of the intentional work of YHWH to ensure that Obed is born. “What made this newborn child important was that, under God’s providential hand, the old widow Naomi, the one who bitterly despaired of having an heir at all, now held one in her own hands.”[15] With the birth of Obed “despair gives way to hope, and death to redemption and a renewal of life” and the reader now rejoices with Naomi.[16] The significance is not that a baby was born. Or that a grandmother held her first child. These are happy events. More importantly is the satisfying end to a drama where a woman who was plagued by a death now seems to have found life.

Finally, the ‘generations of Perez’ presents the reader with the fulfilment of a larger purpose at play. In an attempt to use modern language, it is desirable to use the word ‘progenated’ over ‘fathered’, ‘born’, or ‘begat’ to convey the idea of הוֹלִ֥יד. The reason is that הוֹלִ֥יד contains the idea of not just being the immediate father but is also commonly used in the Old Testament to imply a grandfather or great-grandfather. With this understanding, generations of Perez should be seen as a sampling of those who were part of Perez’s progeny. It should also be noted that “Even the term used to introduce this genealogical list, “generations [ – תולדות toldot]” is only found in the Torah, and nowhere else in the Prophets or Writings.”[17] With this understanding any interpretation made should take into consideration its use in Genesis and Numbers.[18] Ultimately these linguistic connections make evident that there is a very personal connection between not only Obed and David, but also between David and Adam. There is something bigger at play here.[19]

These lexical features do not necessarily require the reader to interpret this text in light of a more prominent future figure. But taken together in the context of the larger story of Ruth and it becomes difficult to argue against such a conclusion.

Biblical Context and Theology

Even a cursory study of the context of Ruth should lead the exegete to turn to multiple places in the Bible for background. Starting with the multiple locations of the toldot formula in Genesis and Numbers. Reviewing Genesis 42 for the unsettling progenation of Perez. Analyzing Genesis 48, the prophecy of the kingly line of Judah. Turning to Leviticus and Deuteronomy informs the reader of the laws of redemption. Looking at Numbers 7 for information on Nahshon. Comparing the genealogies of Perez in Chronicles. And finishing with a study of the Generations of Jesus in Matthew 1. These passages give a wealth of resources to ensure that the importance of the line of Perez is not forgotten.

Further study of the context of Ruth should also lead the exegete to the study of the positioning of Ruth within the Old Testament canon. Does Ruth belong among the other books of the Megillot? Or does Ruth belong after Proverbs? Or did the reformers properly place Ruth between Judges and Samuel? There is certainly a theology of placement that influences the interpretation of even this last section of Ruth. “Differing canonical positions make a difference to how one views and reads a book.”[20] But we should not make too much of the placement. For example, “none of the canonical positions assigned to the book in Hebrew and Greek canons (before Psalms, after Proverbs, or between Judges and Samuel) suggest that ancient readers viewed it as written to promote a more generous view of foreigners.”[21]

There are widely differing arguments in how the genealogy of Matthew 1 should influence the interpretation of this last portion of Ruth. From seeing women taking “risky steps” to ensure the perpetuation of the Davidic line.[22] To seeing how “Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, and Bathsheba have developed into shining examples of morality.”[23] Or that without the work of women there would have been no hope for the progeny of Perez.[24] But all of these interpretations must be submitted to the fact that the narrator of the book of Ruth portrays God as a character not seen but still ‘behind the scenes.’[25] Explicitly, Ruth “4:13 is the only time the narrator describes God as active in events.[26] But the single comment should not be seen as limiting the hand of YHWH’s involvement. Rather the inverse is more probable as it appears that YHWH is acting as the divine agent orchestrating the redemption of Naomi, the birth of Obed, and ultimately the perpetuation of the line of Perez. Culminating with the reality that “Ruth thematically anticipates another devote handmaiden, Mary, who bore Jesus.”[27] Goswell asserted that he was providing a “theological reading of the book (of Ruth) that interprets it within the wider story of God’s purposes for Israel, with divine providence and kindness upholding the dynasty of David for the benefit of Israel as a whole.”[28] In the same fashion it is this authors same effort to show that something greater than the redemption of an old widow is the culmination of the Book of Ruth.

Certainly it would be reasonable and Biblically sound to make the connection that if YHWH’s redemption displays specific traits of the redemption motif here that the interpreter should expect to see similar features in other stories of redemption found throughout the Old Testament. More forcefully, if the New Testament sees one act of redemption in the Old Testament as pointing toward the work of Christ then the precedent has been set that all stories of redemption should be analyzed with the anticipation that they will point toward Christ. However, that is not to say that we should make connections willy-nilly and without careful exegetical warrant.

Secondary Literature

From rabbinic literature to commentaries, even to modern movies, many have sought to provide a definitive interpretation of the events that transpired in the book of Ruth. “The Rabbis understood that the Ruth (genealogy) list was written in a way that indicates that it represents the culmination of the cosmic saga of Genesis, the coming of the Messiah.[29] The Rabbis also sought to interpret the other genealogies is this fashion. They did this by understating these ten-member genealogies as introductions to new epochs.[30]

In Ruth “the word toldot itself is only written using the letter ״vav” at the end ) תולדות as opposed to being written תולדת ( in two places in Tanakh, here in Ruth 4:18 and in Genesis 2:4, the prelude to the sin of Adam. The Midrash comments that this is to hint that the six curses that came to the world as a result of the sin of Adam will be undone, with the coming of the Messiah.”[31] Yet recent scholarship has done much to make nothing of the Davidic connection.[32] The cursory example of secondary literature do not even begin to scratch the surface of diversity of interpretation or focus. Even though selectively helpful, secondary literature can often confuse the situation as much as it tries to help.

Application and Final Thoughts

As stated earlier Ruth 4:13-22 closes the Book of Ruth and informs the reader that Israel has good reason to believe that YHWH will not leave Israel without a redeemer to sit on the throne of David. If read with no knowledge of the final genealogical implications, then Ruth could be read as a drama but with no real lasting satisfaction. No lasting satisfaction because what is to stop Obed or another future progeny from suffering the same fate as Elimelech and his two sons? Yet when read as a polemic for a future Davidic redeemer, then Ruth can be seen “truly (as) a ‘happy story.’”[33]

When the narrator identifies YHWH as the one working all the events of Ruth to culminate in the birth of Obed, and ultimately David, then the reader is left with limited options of interpretation. One could try to write the whole story off as an exaggeration of events and try to sanitize the final events as merely statements of kingly propaganda. This cynical interpretation could still support a biblical interpretation that upholds that “belief in the Davidic line’s perpetuity is a central component of messianic belief in Judaism.”[34] However, to do this requires rejecting the commentary of YHWH’s work in 4:17. The narrator is clearly trying “to show that the reign of David resulted from neither his shrewd politics nor his clever tactics but from the divine preservation of his worthy family line. Therefore, Israel was to accept David’s kingship as the gift of divine guidance.”[35] This should lead any interpreter of this passage to investigate and evaluate the progenitors and the progeny of David to see if there is any truth to the divine guidance of this kingly line. Because if there is any validity then it would seem to necessitate further study into the generations of Jesus Christ. These further studies would seem to ultimately lead the modern exegete to follow in the steps of the neighbors of Naomi who “praised the Lord, giving him credit for providing a redeemer (go’el) for Naomi.”[36] In other words, an interpreter of this text should conclude that just as YHWH has provided a timely redeemer for his people, there is an expectation that he will do the same in the future.

Appendix I – Author’s Wooden Translation

4.13

Boaz took Ruth and she was his wife, and he came to her. YHWH gave to her pregnancy and she progenated a son.

4.14

The women said to Naomi, “(you are) blessed of YHWH which(for) he did not leave you (without) a redeemer today. And his name is called in Israel.

4.15

He is to you the cause of restored life and provider (in) your grey hair (old age). For your daughter-in-law, whom you love, produced a child. She is better to you (than) seven sons.

4.16

Naomi took the boy and she laid him on her chest and she was his guardian (nurse).

4.17

The (female) neighbors called his name, saying ‘a son is progenated to Naomi.” They called his name, ‘Obed.’ He is the father of Jesse, the father of David.

4.18

These are the generations of Perez. Perez progenated Hezron.

4.19

Hezron progenated Ram. Ram progenated Amminadab.

4.20

Amminadab progenated Nahshon. Nahshon progenated Salmon.

4.21

Salmon progenated Boaz. Boaz progenated Obed.

4.22

Obed progenated Jesse. Jesse progenated David.

 

[1] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[2] P. 261 Block, Daniel Isaac. Ruth : A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament ; v. 8. 2015.

[3] Based on the 12 categories presented in Stuart, Douglas K. 2001. Old Testament Exegesis: a handbook for students and pastors. n.p.: Louisville [Ky.] : Westminster John Knox Press, c2001., 2001. SEBTS Catalog, EBSCOhost (accessed July 21, 2016).

[4] See Also: Heavens & Earth, Gen. 2:4; Noah, Gen. 6:9; Sons of Noah, Gen. 10:1; Shem, Gen. 11:10; Terah, Gen. 11:27; Ishmael, Gen. 25:12; Isaac, Gen. 25:19; Esau, Gen. 36:1; Esau, 36:9; Jacob, Gen. 37:2; Levi, Ex. 6:16; Merari, Ex. 6:19; Aaron & Moses, Num. 3:1; Perez, Ruth 4:18; Jesus, Mat 1:1,17

[5] P.229 Block, Daniel Isaac. Ruth : A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament ; v. 8. 2015.

[6] Block, Daniel Isaac. Ruth : A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament ; v. 8. 2015.

[7] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[8] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[9] p.270 Hubbard, Robert L. 1988. The book of Ruth. n.p.: Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, c1988., 1988.

[10] See Also: Heavens & Earth, Gen. 2:4; Noah, Gen. 6:9; Sons of Noah, Gen. 10:1; Shem, Gen. 11:10; Terah, Gen. 11:27; Ishmael, Gen. 25:12; Isaac, Gen. 25:19; Esau, Gen. 36:1; Esau, 36:9; Jacob, Gen. 37:2; Levi, Ex. 6:16; Merari, Ex. 6:19; Aaron & Moses, Num. 3:1; Perez, Ruth 4:18; Jesus, Mat 1:1,17

[11] Ron, Zvi. 2010. “The genealogical list in the book of Ruth: a symbolic approach.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 38, no. 2: 85-92. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[12] Cohen, Abraham D. 2012. “THE ESCHATOLOGICAL MEANING OF THE BOOK OF RUTH “BLESSED BE GOD: ASH ER LO HISHBIT LAKH GO’EL.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 40, no. 3: 163-170. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[13] P.270 Hubbard, Robert L. 1988. The book of Ruth. n.p.: Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, c1988., 1988.

[14] P.249 Block, Daniel Isaac. Ruth : A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament ; v. 8. 2015.

[15] Hubbard, Robert L. 1988. “Ruth 4:17: a new solution.” Vetus Testamentum 38, no. 3: 293-301. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[16] Cohen, Abraham D. 2012. “THE ESCHATOLOGICAL MEANING OF THE BOOK OF RUTH “BLESSED BE GOD: ASH ER LO HISHBIT LAKH GO’EL.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 40, no. 3: 163-170. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[17] Ron, Zvi. 2010. “The genealogical list in the book of Ruth: a symbolic approach.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 38, no. 2: 85-92. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[18] Ron, Zvi. 2010. “The genealogical list in the book of Ruth: a symbolic approach.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 38, no. 2: 85-92. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[19] P.253-4 Block, Daniel Isaac. Ruth : A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament ; v. 8. 2015.

[20] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[21] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[22] Weren, Wilhelmus Johannes Cornelis. 1997. “The Five Women in Matthew’s Geneology.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 59, no. 2: 288-305. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[23] Weren, Wilhelmus Johannes Cornelis. 1997. “The Five Women in Matthew’s Geneology.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 59, no. 2: 288-305. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[24] Weren, Wilhelmus Johannes Cornelis. 1997. “The Five Women in Matthew’s Geneology.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 59, no. 2: 288-305. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[25] P.231 Block, Daniel Isaac. Ruth : A Discourse Analysis of the Hebrew Bible. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament ; v. 8. 2015.

[26] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[27] P.278 Hubbard, Robert L. 1988. The book of Ruth. n.p.: Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, c1988., 1988.

[28] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[29] Ron, Zvi. 2010. “The genealogical list in the book of Ruth: a symbolic approach.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 38, no. 2: 85-92. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[30] Ron, Zvi. 2010. “The genealogical list in the book of Ruth: a symbolic approach.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 38, no. 2: 85-92. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[31] Ron, Zvi. 2010. “The genealogical list in the book of Ruth: a symbolic approach.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 38, no. 2: 85-92. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[32] Goswell, Gregory R. 2014. “The book of Ruth and the house of David.” Evangelical Quarterly 86, no. 2: 116-129. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[33] Emery, Brad. 2013. “‘Redemption-Acquisition’: The Marriage of Ruth as a Theology Commentary on Yahweh and Yahweh’s People.” Journal Of Theological Interpretation 7, 257-273. Old Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[34] Cohen, Abraham D. 2012. “THE ESCHATOLOGICAL MEANING OF THE BOOK OF RUTH “BLESSED BE GOD: ASH ER LO HISHBIT LAKH GO’EL.” Jewish Bible Quarterly 40, no. 3: 163-170. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed July 20, 2016).

[35] P.278 Hubbard, Robert L. 1988. The book of Ruth. n.p.: Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, c1988., 1988.

[36] P.546 2012. The expositor’s Bible commentary Volume 2 Numbers-Ruth. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2012.

Update: 8/20/2016 – Spelling